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小学英语语法及习题

小学英语语法及习题
一、名词复数规则
1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds
2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches
3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries
4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives
5.不规则名词复数:
man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice
child-children
foot-feet,.tooth-teeth
fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
写出下列各词的复数
I _________him _________this ___________her ______
watch _______child _______photo ________diary ______
day________ foot________ book_______ dress ________
tooth_______ sheep ______box_______ strawberry _____
thief _______yo-yo ______ peach______ sandwich ______
man______ woman_______ paper_______       juice___________
water________ milk________ rice__________ tea__________
二、一般现在时
一般现在时基本用法介绍
  【No. 1】一般现在时的功能
  1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。
  2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。
  3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。
  一般现在时的构成
  1. be动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:
  I am a boy.我是一个男孩。
  2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:
  We study English.我们学习英语。
  当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
  一般现在时的变化
  1. be动词的变化。
  否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。
  如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。
  一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。
  如:-Are you a student?
    -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.
  特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?
  2.行为动词的变化。
  否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:
  I don't like bread.
  当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:
  He doesn't often play.
  一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如:
  - Do you often play football?
  - Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
  当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:
  - Does she go to work by bike?
  - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.
  特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work?
动词+s的变化规则
1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks
2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies
一般现在时用法专练:
一、 写出下列动词的第三人称单数
drink ________ go _______ stay ________ make ________
look _________ have_______ pass_______     carry ____
come________      watch______ plant_______ fly ________
study_______ brush________ do_________     teach_______
二、用括号内动词的适当形式填空。
1. He often ________(have) dinner at home.
2. Daniel and Tommy _______(be) in Class One.
3. We _______(not watch) TV on Monday.
4. Nick _______(not go) to the zoo on Sunday.
5. ______ they ________(like) the World Cup?
6. What _______they often _______(do) on Saturdays?
7. _______ your parents _______(read) newspapers every day?
8. The girl _______(teach) us English on Sundays.
9. She and I ________(take) a walk together every evening.
10. There ________(be) some water in the bottle.
11. Mike _______(like) cooking.
12. They _______(have) the same hobby.
13. My aunt _______(look) after her baby carefully.
14. You always _______(do) your homework well.
15. I _______(be) ill. I’m staying in bed.
16. She _______(go) to school from Monday to Friday.
17. Liu Tao _______(do) not like PE.
18. The child often _______(watch) TV in the evening.
19. Su Hai and Su Yang _______(have) eight lessons this term.
20.     -What day _______(be) it today?
- It’s Saturday.三、按照要求改写句子
1. Daniel watches TV every evening.(改为否定句)
___________________________________________________
2. I do my homework every day.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)
________________________________________________________
3. She likes milk.(改为一般疑问句,作肯定回答)
___________________________
4. Amy likes playing computer games.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)
___________________________________________________
5. We go to school every morning.(改为否定句)
_______________________________________________________
6. He speaks English very well.(改为否定句)
___________________________________________________
7. I like taking photos in the park.(对划线部分提问)
________________________________________________________
8. John comes from Canada.(对划线部分提问)
___________________________________________________
9. She is always a good student.(改为一般疑问句,作否定回答)
________________________________________________________
10. Simon and Daniel like going skating.(改为否定句)
___________________________________________________
五、改错(划出错误的地方,将正确的写在横线上)
1. Is     your brother speak English?         __________________
2. Does he likes going fishing?             __________________
3. He likes play games after class.         __________________
4. Mr. Wu teachs us English.                __________________
5. She don’t do her homework on Sundays. _________________
三、现在进行时
1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。
2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.
3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。
4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。
5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为:
疑问词 + be + 主语 + 动词ing?
      但疑问词当主语时其结构为:
       疑问词 + be + 动词ing?
动词加ing的变化规则
1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking
2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting
3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping
现在进行时专项练习:
一、写出下列动词的现在分词:
play________ run__________ swim _________make__________
go_________ like________     write________ _ski___________
read________ have_________ sing     ________ dance_________
put_________ see________ buy _________ love____________
live_______ take_________ come ________     get_________
stop_________ sit ________ begin________ shop___________
二、用所给的动词的正确形式填空:
1.The boy __________________ ( draw)a picture now.
2. Listen .Some girls _______________ ( sing)in the classroom .
3. My mother _________________ ( cook )some nice food     now.
4. What _____ you ______ ( do ) now?
5. Look . They _______________( have) an English lesson .
6.They ____________(not ,water) the flowers now.
7.Look! the girls ________________(dance )in the classroom .
8.What is our granddaughter doing? She _________(listen ) to music.
     9. It’s     5     o’clock now. We _____________(have)supper now
10.______Helen____________(wash )clothes? Yes ,she is .
三、句型转换:
1. They are doing housework .(分别改成一般疑问句和否定句)
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
2.The students are cleaning the classroom . ( 改一般疑问句并作肯定和否定回答)
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
3.I’m playing the football in the playground .(对划线部分进行提问)
_________________________________________________________________
4.Tom is reading books in his study . (对划线部分进行提问)
四、将来时
一、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。
二、基本结构:①be going to + do;
②will+ do.
三、否定句:在be动词(am, is, are)后加not或情态动词will后加not成won’t。
例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.
四、一般疑问句: be或will提到句首,some改为any, and改为or,第一二人称互换。
例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?
五、对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。
1.         问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon.
2.         问干什么。What … do.例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this  
afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon.
3.        问什么时候。When.例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going   
to bed?
六、同义句:be going to = will
I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.
练习:
填空。
1.     我打算明天和朋友去野炊。
I_____ _______ _________ have a picnic with my friends.
I ________ have a picnic with my friends.
2.     下个星期一你打算去干嘛? 我想去打篮球。
What ________ ________ _________ _________ _________ next Monday? I _______ ______ _____ play basketball.
What _________ you do next Monday? I ________ play basketball.
3.           你妈妈这个周末去购物吗?是,她要去买一些水果。
_____ your mother _______ ________ go shopping this ___________?
Yes, she _________. She ______ ________ __________ buy some fruit.
4.           你们打算什么时候见面。
What time _______ you _________ __________ meet?
改句子。
5.           Nancy is going to go camping.(改否定)
Nancy ________ going to go camping.
6.           I’ll go and join them.(改否定)
I _______ go ______ join them.
7.           I’m going to get up at 6:30 tomorrow.(改一般疑问句)
________ _______ ________ to get up at 6:30 tomorrow?
8.           We will meet at the bus stop at 10:30.(改一般疑问句)
_______ ________ meet at the bus stop at 10:30.
9.           She is going to listen to music after school.(对划线部分提问)
________ _______ she ________ ________ _________ after school?
10.           My father and mother are going to see a play the day after tomorrow.(同上)
_________ _________ going to see a play the day after tomorrow
全身心记忆法

   根据测试,参与记忆单词的器官和身体部位越多,单词在大脑中的印象就越深刻,记忆的时间也就越长。边读边写边记,除读记所使用的发音器官和身体的其它部位外,大脑中枢还要指挥大臂带动小臂,小臂带动手掌,手掌带动手指,从而正确地书写单词。这种方法避免了"小和尚念经",因为只要注意力不集中,书写马上就出错。书写既是大脑中枢的执行行为,又是大脑中枢的监察器。

   联系记忆法

   联系记忆法就是在记忆单词的过程中,不去孤立地记一个词或词组,而是把它与同义词、反义词、相关词、句、篇等联系起来记忆。

   同义记忆与近义记忆

   掌握一个词或词组的同义词和近义词或者其解释是掌握该语言重要的一环。只有这样,才能初步做到用英语进行思维,而用英语思维是掌握英语的一个标志。

   同类记忆与比较记忆

   同类记忆的涵盖面很广,如词性同类、动物同类、植物同类、事情同类、物品同类等。如我们可以把边际从属连词放在一起记忆。比较记忆是把词形相近或意义相近的词放在一起对比记忆。这样记忆可以辨别词义,准确使用词汇。

   联想记忆

   "联想是钓钩,在茫茫的艺海中,它能准确地钩住你所识记的事物。"联想越丰富,越多彩,记忆的艺术也就越高超。记忆以联想为基础;联想又是记忆的一种方法。联想又分为类似联想、类别联想和词、句、篇联想。

   无意识记忆法

   无意识记忆并不是无注意力记忆,而是时间分散记忆。这种方法特别适合于工作忙碌的人。首先准备一个袖珍笔记本,将要记忆的单词写在笔记本上。只要有时间就拿出来读读。这些单词见多了对你就会产生感情,你一定能记住,因为每读记一遍,就在你的大脑中加深一层印象。这样记忆的单词可长久不忘,并能随时想起,是一种很好的长时记忆法。

   构词记忆法

   利用英语词汇的构词规律,内在结构记忆单词是一种理性地使自己词汇量膨胀起来的方法。英语单词是由词素构成的,词素分为自由词素和粘附词素。记忆单词主要是记自由词素,因为有些自由词素可以充当词根,词根加词缀构成许多派生词。构词法主要有三种:转化、合成和派生。

 

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